In Spanish, understanding the difference between “ser” and “estar” is crucial, as both verbs mean “to be” but are used in different contexts:
- Ser: Used for permanent or essential characteristics, such as identity, nationality, professions, and inherent qualities.
- “Yo soy María” (I am María) – identity.
- “Ella es española” (She is Spanish) – nationality.
- “Él es médico” (He is a doctor) – profession.
- “El cielo es azul” (The sky is blue) – inherent characteristic.
- Estar: Used for temporary states or conditions, locations, and emotions.
- “Estoy en casa” (I am at home) – location.
- “Estoy cansado” (I am tired) – temporary state.
- “La comida está caliente” (The food is hot) – temporary condition.
- “Estamos felices” (We are happy) – emotion.
“Ser” focuses on what something or someone permanently is, while “estar” refers to how something or someone is at a given moment, including locations and temporary states.
Now, for the numbers from 1 to 20 in Spanish:
Typical Spanish greetings from Spain and their English translations:
- Hola – Hello
- Buenos días – Good morning
- Buenas tardes – Good afternoon/evening
- Buenas noches – Good night
- ¿Qué tal? – How are you?
- ¿Cómo estás? – How are you?
- Encantado/a (m/f) – Pleased to meet you
- Mucho gusto – Nice to meet you
- Hasta luego – See you later
- Adiós – Goodbye
To finish the lesson, here are 3 PDFs that will help you to understand it better, feel free to send us the answers and we will be happy to correct them.